E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes.

Abstract
Background: Water hardness varies depending on the source, treatment procedures, and pipeline conditions among others, though not of immediate concern in water quality control but may have significant health, infrastructural, or industrial effects.

Aims and Objectives: This study quantified, classified, analyzed, and compared hardness of tap water samples from household and commercial faucets across the six legislative districts of Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration.

Materials and Methods: Tap water samples were collected through stratified random sampling, and the hardness was subsequently measured through complexometric titration.

Results: Using the United States Geological Survey Water Quality Information ordinal classification scheme, tap water samples have fluctuating values from “soft” to “very hard” qualitative description of the water hardness.

Conclusion: Despite fluctuations in values, water hardness nonetheless passed the 2007 Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water.

Key words: Water Hardness; Complexometric Titration; Manila City, Philippines; Water Quality


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 7(12): 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017


Web Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=271181 [Access: June 01, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 7(12): 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2017), [cited June 01, 2022]; 7(12): 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Harvard Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes (2017) Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 7 (12), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Turabian Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes. 2017. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 (12), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Chicago Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes. "Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7 (2017), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes. "Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7.12 (2017), 1385-1389. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes (2017) Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 (12), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017