E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force

Katrina Danielle A Hernais, Thenknis T Camara, Michael B Ples, Rodel Jonathan S Vitor II.

Abstract
Background: Cobra energy drink is one of the most popular beverages in the Philippines used by many for its energy‑boosting effects. It is known to contain ingredients such as caffeine, B-vitamins, taurine, and ginseng, which are all said to improve muscle performance. Caffeine helps aid muscle contraction through the opening of calcium ion channels, while B vitamins aid in the production of adenosine triphosphate needed by the muscles during exercise. In addition to this, taurine helps maintain contractile functions while ginseng protects the muscles from exercise-induced oxidative stress.

Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the study are to determine the effect of Cobra energy drink on the contraction force and fatigability of the gastrocnemius muscle of toad.

Materials and Methods: Cobra energy drink was administered in four different concentrations (100% v/v, 75% v/v, 50% v/v, and 25% v/v). Each treatment concentration had four replicates each and a total of 16 toads were used. For each toad, both legs were used, one leg for the treatment and the other one for the control. The factors measured are as follows: Mean force, maximum force, and fatigue time. These parameters were measured using the PowerLab/4ST.

Results: Based on the results gathered, 100% v/v showed an increase in muscle contractility by garnering a positive result for all three factors while the rest of the treatments gave negative means for all three factors. Means for 100% v/v were considered statistically significant from all the other treatments while the rest showed no significant differences. Moreover, no significant differences were detected from all treatments in fatigue time including the 100% v/v. However, the results imply that as the treatment concentration increased, muscle contractility also increased. 100% v/v showed the most promising results in muscle contraction and fatigability due to it gaining positive values for all three parameters while the other treatments gave negative results.

Conclusion: It can be said that Cobra energy drink had a beneficial effect on the muscle in terms of muscle contractility due to the significant differences detected in muscle contractility and fatigability.

Key words: Energy Drink; Gastrocnemius; Muscle Contraction; Muscle Fatigue; Toad


 
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Pubmed Style

Hernais KDA, Camara TT, Ples MB, II RJSV. The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(7): 1026-1030. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018


Web Style

Hernais KDA, Camara TT, Ples MB, II RJSV. The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=292764 [Access: September 19, 2018]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Hernais KDA, Camara TT, Ples MB, II RJSV. The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(7): 1026-1030. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Hernais KDA, Camara TT, Ples MB, II RJSV. The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2018), [cited September 19, 2018]; 8(7): 1026-1030. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018



Harvard Style

Hernais, K. D. A., Camara, T. T., Ples, M. B. & II, R. J. S. V. (2018) The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 8 (7), 1026-1030. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018



Turabian Style

Hernais, Katrina Danielle A, Thenknis T Camara, Michael B Ples, and Rodel Jonathan S Vitor II. 2018. The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (7), 1026-1030. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018



Chicago Style

Hernais, Katrina Danielle A, Thenknis T Camara, Michael B Ples, and Rodel Jonathan S Vitor II. "The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8 (2018), 1026-1030. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Hernais, Katrina Danielle A, Thenknis T Camara, Michael B Ples, and Rodel Jonathan S Vitor II. "The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8.7 (2018), 1026-1030. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Hernais, K. D. A., Camara, T. T., Ples, M. B. & II, R. J. S. V. (2018) The muscular effect of Cobra energy drink on toad (Bufo marinus = Rhinella marina) gastrocnemius fatigue time and contraction force. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (7), 1026-1030. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.0308710032018





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