E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672

Review Article 

Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel.

Cited by (17)

Curcumin is a yellow orange powder, which is extracted from the turmeric plant (Curcuma longa). Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the turmeric (C. longa). Curcumin was first isolated in 1815 and its chemical structure was determined by Roughley and Whiting in 1973. It has been identified as 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione-1,7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-(1e,6e) or diferuloylmethane. Turmeric has been listed as “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) as a coloring and flavoring agent in food by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As per WHO, as an additive the daily acceptable dose of curcumin for humans has been defined as 0–3 mg/kg body weight. Curcumin can be administered by different routes as topical, oral, and inhalational. Curcumin inserts deep into the cell membrane in a manner similar to cholesterol. Curcumin has a high lipophilic character, and body fat has a high percentage of bound curcumin. The systemic bioavailability of orally administered curcumin is low in humans and only traces of it have been found in the liver and portal circulation. Piperine has been reported to increase the bioavailability of curcumin. Recently, it has been reported that newly developed nanoparticulate curcumin has better bioavailability. There is a growing list of disease conditions that can be treated by curcumin. Curcumin has been found to have therapeutic effects in wound healing and in various types of arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pulmonary diseases, Parkinson’s disease, and in Alzheimer’s disease. Curcumin has been reported to have potential role in the treatment of atherosclerosis, arthritis, chronic anterior uveitis, colon cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis, hypercholesteremia, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, psoriasis, ulcerative colitis, and even HIV.

Key words: HIV; Colon Cancer; Wound Healing; Nanoparticulate, Lipophilic, Diferuloylmethane, Curcumin, Turmeric

PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Sudhanshu Agrawal
Articles by Raj Kumar Goel
on Google
on Google Scholar

1. Curcumin from URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curcumin.
2. Goel A, Kumar A, Kunnumakkara B, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin as ‘‘Curecumin’’: from kitchen to clinic. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75: 787-809. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
3. Kolev TM, Velcheva EA, Stemboliyska BA, Spiteller M. DFT and experimental studies of the structure and vibrational spectra of curcumin Int J Qua Chem. 2005;102:1069-79. [DOI via Crossref]    20469.
4. Wahlstrom B, Blennow G. A study on the fate of curcumin in the rat. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol. 1978;43:86-92. [DOI via Crossref]   
5. Lim GP, Chu T, Yang F, Beech W, Frautschy SA, Cole GM. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8370-7.
6. Mishra S, Palanivelu K. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s disease: an overview. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2008; 11(1):13-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
7. Kohli K, Ali J, Ansari MJ, Raheman Z. Curcumin: a natural antiinflammatory agent. Indian J Pharmacol. 2005;37(3):141-7. [DOI via Crossref]   
8. Akram M, Shahab-Uddin AA, Usmanghani K, Hannan A, Mohiuddin E, Asif M. Curcuma longa and curcumin: a review article. Rom J Biol Plant Biol. 2010;55:65-70.
9. Chattopadhyay I, Biswas K, Bandyopadhyay U, Banerjee RK. Turmeric and curcumin: biological actions and medicinal applications. Curr Sci. 2004;87(1):44-53.
10. Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Sakariah KK. Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin manufacture. J Agric Food Chem. 1999;47:4297-300. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
11. Kawamori T, Lubet R, Steele VE. Chemopreventative effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Cancer Res. 1999;59:597-601.
12. Summary of Evaluations Performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive. Geneva: WHO, 2005Summary of Evaluations Performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive. Geneva: WHO, 2005.
13. Araújo CAC, Leon LL. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2001;96(5):723-8.
14. Balasubramanian K. Molecular orbital basis for yellow curry spice curcumin’s prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(10):3512-20. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15. Ahmed S, Anuntiyo J, Malemud CJ, Haqqi TM. Biological basis for the use of botanicals in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. eCAM. 2005;2(3):301-8. [DOI via Crossref]   
16. Ringman JM, Frautschy SA, Cole GM, Masterman DL, Cummings JL. A potential role of the curry spice curcumin in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2005;2:1-6. [DOI via Crossref]   
17. Sharma RA, Mc Lelland HR, Hill KA, Ireson CR, Euden SA, Manson MM, et al. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:1894-900.
18. Antony B, Merina B, Iyer VS, Judy N, Lennertz K, Joyal S. A pilot cross-over study to evaluate human oral bioavailability of BCM- 95s CG (BiocurcumaxTM), a novel bioenhanced preparation of curcumin. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008;70(4):445-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
19. Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998;64(4):353-6. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
20. Cheng AL, Hsu CH, Lin JK, Hsu MM, Ho YF, Shen TS, et al. Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(4B):2895-900.
21. Lao CD, Ruffin MT, Normolle D, Heath DD, Murray SI, Bailey JM, et al. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:10. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
22. Ravindranath V, Chandrasekhara N. Absorption and tissue distribution of curcumin in rats. Toxicology. 1980;16(3):259-65. [DOI via Crossref]   
23. Ravindranath V, Chandrasekhara N. Metabolism of curcumin: studies with [3H] curcumin. Toxicology. 1981-1982;22(4):337-44.
24. Garcea G, Jones DJL, Singh R, Dennison AR, Farmer PB, Sharma RA, et al. Detection of curcumin and its metabolites in hepatic tissue and portal blood of patients following oral administration. Brit J Cancer. 2004;90(5):1011-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
25. Barry J, Fritz M, Brender JR, Smith PES, Lee DK, Ramamoorthy A. Determining the effects of lipophilic drugs on membrane structure by solid-state NMR spectroscopy: the case of the antioxidant curcumin. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131(12):4490-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
26. Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharmaceutics. 2007;4(6):807-18. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
27. Marczylo TH, Verschoyle RD, Cooke DN, Morazzoni P, Steward WP, Gescher AJ. Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007;60(2):171-7. [DOI via Crossref]    006-0355-x.
28. Mohanty C, Sahoo SK. The in vitro stability and in vivo pharmacokinetics of curcumin prepared as an aqueous nanoparticulate formulation. Biomaterials. 2010;31(25):6597-611. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
29. Kanai M, Imaizumi A, Otsuka Y, Sasaki H, Hashiguchi M, Tsujiko K, et al. Dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of nanoparticle curcumin, a potential anticancer agent with improved bioavailability, in healthy human volunteers Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:65-70. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
30. Sharma RA, Euden SA, Platton SL, Cooke DN, Shafayat A, Hewitt HR, et al. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(20):6847-54. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
31. Garcea G, Berry DP, Jones DJ, Singh R, Dennison AR, Farmer PB, et al. Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:120-5.
32. Vareed SK, Kakarala M, Ruffin MT, Crowell JA, Normolle DP, Djuric Z, et al. Pharmacokinetics of curcumin conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(6):1411-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
33. Kanai M, Yoshimura K, Asada M, Imaizumi A, Suzuki C, Matsumoto S, et al. A phase I/II study of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus curcumin for patients with gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;68(1):157-64. [DOI via Crossref]    s00280-010-1470-2.
34. Sasaki H, Sunagawa Y, Takahashi K, Imaizumi A, Fukuda H, Hashimoto T, et al. Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(5):660-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
35. Singh R, Sharma P. Hepatoprotective effect of curcumin on lindaneinduced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Toxicol Int. 2011;18 (2):124-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
36. Park E-J, Jeon CH, Ko G, Kim J, Sohn DH. Protective effect of curcumin in rat liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000;52(4):437-40. [DOI via Crossref]   
37. Pari L, Amali DR. Protective role of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) an active principle of turmeric on chloroquine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2005;8(1):115-23.
38. Eybl V, Kotyzová D, Bludovská M. The effect of curcumin on cadmium-induced oxidative damage and trace elements level in the liver of rats and mice. Toxicol Lett. 2004;151:79-85. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
39. Subba Rao D, Chandra Sekhara N, Satyanarayana MN, Srinivasan M. Effects of curcumin on serum and liver cholesterol levels in the rat. J. Nutrition. 1970;100:1307-16.
40. Rukkumani R, Aruna K, Varma PS, Rajasekaran KN, Menon VP. Comparative effects of curcumin and an analog of curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2004;7(2):274-83.
41. Hikino H. Antihepatotoxic activity of crude drugs. Yakugaku zasshi. 1985;105:109-18.
42. Song EK, Cho H, Kim JS, Kim NY, An NH, Kim JA, et al. Diarylheptanoids with free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity in vitro from Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 2001;67:876-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
43. Chey WY, Millikan L, Lee KY, Watanabe S, Shiratori K, Takeuchi T. Effect of 1-phenylpentanol on release of secretin and exocrine pancreatic secretion in dogs and humans. Gastroenterology. 1983; 84:1578-84.
44. Lee CJ, Lee JH, Seok JH, Hur GM, Park YC, Seol IC, et al. Effects of baicalein, berberine, curcumin and hespiridin on mucin release from airway goblet cells. Planta Med. 2003;69:523-6. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
45. Dasgupta SR, Sinha M, Sahana CC, Mukherjee BP. A study of the effect of an extract of Curcuma longa Linn. on experimental gastric ulcers in animals. Indian J Pharmacol. 1969;1:49-54.
46. Sinha M, Mukherjee BP, Mukherjee B, Dasgupta SR. Study on the 5-hydroxytryptamine contents in guinea pig stomach with relation to phenylbutazone induced gastric ulcers and the effects of curcumin thereon. Indian J Pharmacol. 1974;6:87-96.
47. Gupta B, Kulshrestha VK, Srivastava RK, Prasad DN. Mechanisms of curcumin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Indian J Med Res. 1980;71: 806-14.
48. Itthipanichpong C, Ruangrungsi N, Kemsri W, Sawasdipanich A. Antispasmodic effects of curcuminoids on isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:299-309.
49. Platel K, Srinivasan K. Digestive stimulant action of spices: a myth or reality? Indian J Med Res. 2004;119(5):167-79.
50. Onder A, Kapan M, Gumus¸ M, Yuksel H, Boyuk A, Alp H, et al. The protective effects of curcumin on intestine and remote organs against mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury Turk J Gastroenterol. 2012;23(2):141-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
51. Okudan N, Belviranli M, Gokbel H, Oz M, Kumak A. Protective effect of curcumin supplementation on intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury Phytomedicine. 2013;20(10):844-8. [DOI via Crossref]    00131-1.10.1016/j.phymed.2013.03.022.
52. Singh P, Mogra P, Sankhla V, Deora K. Protective effects of curcumin on cadmium chloride induced colon toxicity in Swiss albino mice. J Cell Mol Biol. 2011;9(1):31-6.
53. Swamy AV, Gulliaya S, Thippeswamy A, Koti BC, Manjula DV. Cardioprotective effect of curcumin against doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44(1): 73-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
54. Nirmala C, Puvanakrishnan R. Protective role of curcumin against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 1996;159(2):85-93. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
55. Kim YS, Park HJ, Joo SY, Hong MH, Kim KH, Hong YJ, et al. The protective effect of curcumin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Korean Circ J. 2008;38:353-59. [DOI via Crossref]   
56. Patil TN, Srinivasan M. Hypocholesteremic effect of curcumin in induced-hypercholesteremic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1971;9: 167-9.
57. Khuwaja G, Khan MM, Ishrat T, Ahmad A, Raza SS, Ashfaq M, et al. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonism in rats: Behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies Brain Res. 2011;1368:254-63. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
58. Bourne KZ, Bourne N, Reising SF, Stanberry LR. Plant products as topical microbicide candidates: assessment of in vitro and in vivo activity against herpes simplex virus type 2. Antiviral Res. 1999; 42:219-26. [DOI via Crossref]   
59. Mazumder A, Wang S, Neamati N, Nicklaus M, Sunder S, Chen J, et al. Antiretroviral agents as inhibitors of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and protease. J Med Chem. 1996;39:2472-81. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
60. Sui Z, Salto R, Li J, Craik C, Ortiz de Montellano PR. Inhibition of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases by curcumin and curcumin boron complexes. Bioorg Med Chem. 1993;1:415-22. [DOI via Crossref]   
61. James JS. (ATN) Curcumin update: could food spice be low-cost antiviral? AIDS Treat News. 1993;176:1-3.
62. Turmeric Is ‘‘The Spice of Life’’. by Will Block from URLwww.lifeenhancement.com/article_template.asp?ID=995 Turmeric Is ‘‘The Spice of Life’’. by Will Block from URLwww.life-enhancement.com/ article_template.asp?ID=995.
63. Douichene S, Djebli N, Ahmed M, Zerrouki K. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin with a fixator of absorption against both aluminium neurotoxicity and alzheimer’s disease (Experimental studies in mice) J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism. 2012;2:107 [DOI via Crossref]    2161-0460.1000107.
64. Choudhary N, Sekhon BS. Potential therapeutic effect of curcumin: an update. J Pharm Educ Res. 2012;3(2):64-71.
65. Kaur G, Meena C. Evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic potential of combinatorial extract of curcumin, piperine and quercetin in triton-induced hyperlipidemia in rats Sci Int. 2013;1:57-63. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
66. Shrivastava R, Solanki SS, Tomar V, Garud N, Garud A, Kannojia P, et al. Research article comparative evaluation of polyherbal combination for hypolipidemic activity. IJPSDR. 2009;1(1):9-12.
67. Kamal-Eldin A, Frank J, Razdan A, Tengblad S, Basu S, Vessby B. Effects of dietary phenolic compounds on tocopherol, cholesterol, and fatty acids in rats. Lipids. 2000;35:427-35. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
68. Basnet P, Skalko-Basnet N. Curcumin: an anti-inflammatory molecule from a curry spice on the path to cancer treatment Molecules. 2011;16:4567-98. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
69. Sharma OP. Antioxidant activity of curcumin and related compounds. Biochem Pharmacol. 1976;25:1811-2. [DOI via Crossref]   
70. Reddy AC, Lokesh BR. Effect of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver. Food Chem Toxicol. 1994;32:279-83. [DOI via Crossref]   
71. Subramanian M, Sreejayan Rao MNA, Devasagayam TPA, Singh BB. Diminution of singlet oxygen induced DNA damage by curcumin and related antioxidants. Mutat Res. 1994;311:249-55. [DOI via Crossref]   
72. Unnikrishnan MK, Rao MNA. Curcumin inhibits nitrogen dioxide induced oxidation of hemoglobin. Mol Cell Biochem. 1995;146 (1):35-7. [DOI via Crossref]   
73. Rege S, Momin S, Wadekar S, Pratap A, Bhowmick D. Effect of demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin on antioxidant activity of curcumin in refined sunflower oil J Food Process Preserv. 2014;38:296-303. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
74. Punithavathi D, Venkatesan N, Babu M. Curcumin inhibition of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;131:169-72. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
75. Araújo CAC, Alegrio LV, Castro D, Lima MEF, Leon LL. Leishmania amazonensis: in vivo experiments with diarylheptanoids from Leguminosae and Zingiberaceae plants Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1998;93(Suppl II):306.
76. Rasmussen HB, Christensen SB, Kvist LP, Karazmi A. A simple and efficient separation of the curcumins, the antiprotozoal constituents of Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 2000;66:396-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
77. Li X, Jin C, He J, Zhou J, Wang H, Dai B, et al. Microcalorimetric investigation of the antibacterial activity of curcumin on Staphylococcus aureus coupled with multivariate analysis. J Ther Ana Calor. 2012;109 (1):395-402. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
78. Singh RP, Jain DA. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of curcuminoids isolated from turmeric. IJPLS. 2012;3(1):1368-76.
79. Bhavani Shankar TN, Sreenivasa Murthy V. Effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) fractions on the growth of some intestinal and pathogenic bacteria in vitro Indian J Exp Biol. 1979;17: 1363-6.
80. Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Yun G, Lu ZZ. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and curcumin inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, of group I carcinogen. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:4179-81.
81. Bhullar KS, Jha A, Youssef D, Rupasinghe HPV. Curcumin and its carbocyclic analogs: structure-activity in relation to antioxidant and selected biological properties Molecules. 2013;18:5389-404. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
82. Ha PT, Le MH, Hoang TMN, Le TTH, Duong TQ, Tran THH, et al. Preparation and anti-cancer activity of polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles Adv Nat Sci: Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2012;3(3): 035002 [DOI via Crossref]    http://iopscience. iop.org/2043-6262/3/3/035002. [DOI via Crossref]   
83. Pan Y, Xiao J, Liang G, Wang M, Wang D, Wang S, et al. A new curcumin analogue exhibits enhanced antitumor activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma Oncol Rep. 2013;30(1):239-45. [DOI via Crossref]    Epub 2013 May 14. [DOI via Crossref]   
84. Craig Weatherby. Curry spices versus colorectal cancer Vital Choices. 2006;96(3). from URL: http://newsletter.vitalchoice.com/ e_article000671218.cfm?x=b6TLBFC,b1kJpvRw,w.
85. Chen HW, Huang HC. Effect of curcumin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in vascular smooth cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1998; 124:1029-40. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
86. Chuang SE, Kuo ML, Hsu CH, Chen CR, Lin JK, Lai GM, et al. Curcumin-containing diet inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced murine hepatocarcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21(2): 331-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
87. Wang X, Wang Q, Ives KL, Evers BM. Curcumin inhibits neurotensinmediated interleukin-8 production and migration of hct116 human colon cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:5346-55. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
88. Ajaikumar B, Kunnumakkara AB, Guha S, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin and colorectal cancer: add spice to your life Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep. 2009;5(1):5-14.
89. Kim DC, Ku SK, Bae JS. Anticoagulant activities of curcumin and its derivative. BMB Rep. 2012;45(4):221-6. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
90. Srivastava KC, Bordiab A, Verma SK. Curcumin, a major component of food spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibits aggregation and alters eicosanoid metabolism in human blood platelets. PLEFA. 1995;52(4):223-7. [DOI via Crossref]   
91. Naz RK. Can curcumin provide an ideal contraceptive? Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78(2):116-23. [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
92. Ghosh AK, Das AK, Patra KK. Studies on antifertility effect of rhizome of Curcuma longa linn. AJPLS. 2011;1(4):349-53.
93. Santoshkumar J, Manjunath S, Mariguddi DD, Kalashetty PG, Dass P, Manjunath C. Anti-diabetic effects of turmeric in alloxan induced diabetic rats. JEMDS. 2013;2(11):1669-79. [DOI via Crossref]   
94. Aziz MTA, El-Asmar MF, El-Ibrashy IN, Rezq AM, Al-Malki Al, Wassef MA, et al. Effect of novel water soluble curcumin derivative on experimental type- 1 diabetes mellitus (short term study). Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012;4:30 http://www.dmsjournal.com/ content/4/1/30.
95. Suryanarayana P, Krishnaswamy K, Reddy GB. Effect of curcumin on galactose-induced cataractogenesis in rats. Mol Vis. 2003; 9:223-30.
96. Arun N, Nalini N. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2002;57:41-52. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
97. Pidaran M, Leelavinothan P. Protective role of tetrahydrocurcumin on changes in the fatty acid composition in streptozotocinnicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. J Appl Biomed. 2007;5:31-8.

This Article Cited By the following articles

Computational investigation for identification of potential phytochemicals and antiviral drugs as potential inhibitors for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of COVID-19
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2022; 40(8): 3492.

Transdermal permeation of curcumin promoted by choline geranate ionic liquid: Potential for the treatment of skin diseases
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 2022; 30(4): 382.

Curcumin- A Bio-based Precursor for Smart and Active Food Packaging Systems: A Review
J Polym Environ 2022; 30(6): 2177.

Nanocurcumin: Potential natural alkaloid against oral squamous cell carcinoma
Biomed Biotechnol Res J 2021; 5(3): 260.

Leveraging ECG signals and social media for stress detection
Behaviour & Information Technology 2021; 40(2): 116.

Stability of Curcumin Improved in Hydrophobic Based Deep Eutectic Solvents
RJPT 2021; (): 6430.

A pH-sensitive delivery system based on N-succinyl chitosan-ZnO nanoparticles for improving antibacterial and anticancer activities of curcumin
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2020; 151(): 428.

Combination use of tolfenamic acid with curcumin improves anti‐inflammatory activity and reduces toxicity in mice
J Food Biochem 2020; 44(6): .


2020; (): 543.

Stimuli-responsive non-ionic Gemini amphiphiles for drug delivery applications
Polym. Chem. 2020; 11(42): 6772.


2020; (): .

Computational investigation for identification of potential phytochemicals and antiviral drugs as potential inhibitors for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of COVID-19
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2020; (): 1.

Curcumin in tissue engineering: A traditional remedy for modern medicine
BioFactors 2019; 45(2): 135.

Leveraging ECG signals and social media for stress detection
Behaviour & Information Technology 2019; (): 1.

Phytotherapy Research 2018; (): .

Curcumin in tissue engineering: A traditional remedy for modern medicine
BioFactors 2018; (): .


2017; (): .

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel. Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2016; 6(1): 1-8. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

Web Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel. Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=38946 [Access: December 01, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel. Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2016; 6(1): 1-8. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel. Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2016), [cited December 01, 2022]; 6(1): 1-8. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

Harvard Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel (2016) Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 6 (1), 1-8. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

Turabian Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel. 2016. Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6 (1), 1-8. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

Chicago Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel. "Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6 (2016), 1-8. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel. "Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6.1 (2016), 1-8. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596

APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sudhanshu Agrawal, Raj Kumar Goel (2016) Curcumin and its protective and therapeutic uses. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6 (1), 1-8. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.3005201596