E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease

Dushyant Shantilal Patel, Nirav Rasiklal Patel, Jagdishkumar Virabhai Patel, Avani Bipinchandra Chavda.

Abstract
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and histological evidence of reduction in nephron population. CKD divided in five stages according to the estimated GFR (eGFR) and lower eGFR suggests more complications.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to study etiology, clinical features, complications, and correlation of complication to stages of CKD.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among patients who were diagnosed as CKD based on the National Kidney Foundation definition during August, 2019–November 2021. They were evaluated by history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations and data collected and analyzed about etiology, clinical features, and complications of CKD according to the stage. Necessary approval from Institutional Ethics Committee was taken for the study.

Results: Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) was the most common diagnosis (51, 51%), followed by diabetic nephropathy (22, 22.0%), 73 (73%) had symptoms suggestive of volume overload state such as pedal edema, puffiness of face, and abdominal distension. Oliguria was present in 69 (69%) and 76 (76%) had dyspnea, anemia presents in 90%, cardiovascular disease in 50% in which the most common was left ventricular hypertrophy.

Conclusion: CGN is the most common cause of CKD. Severity of anemia and hyperphosphatemia is directly proportional to stage of CKD. Dyspnea and oliguria were the most common manifestations of CKD in the study population. Three-fourth patients of study were treated with some form of renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis and renal transplant).

Key words: Chronic Kidney Disease; End Stage Renal Disease; Chronic Glomerulonephritis


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Patel DS, Patel NR, Patel JV, Chavda AB. A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2022; 12(5): 680-683. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022


Web Style

Patel DS, Patel NR, Patel JV, Chavda AB. A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=10989 [Access: June 01, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Patel DS, Patel NR, Patel JV, Chavda AB. A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2022; 12(5): 680-683. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Patel DS, Patel NR, Patel JV, Chavda AB. A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2022), [cited June 01, 2022]; 12(5): 680-683. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022



Harvard Style

Patel, D. S., Patel, . N. R., Patel, . J. V. & Chavda, . A. B. (2022) A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 12 (5), 680-683. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022



Turabian Style

Patel, Dushyant Shantilal, Nirav Rasiklal Patel, Jagdishkumar Virabhai Patel, and Avani Bipinchandra Chavda. 2022. A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 12 (5), 680-683. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022



Chicago Style

Patel, Dushyant Shantilal, Nirav Rasiklal Patel, Jagdishkumar Virabhai Patel, and Avani Bipinchandra Chavda. "A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12 (2022), 680-683. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Patel, Dushyant Shantilal, Nirav Rasiklal Patel, Jagdishkumar Virabhai Patel, and Avani Bipinchandra Chavda. "A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12.5 (2022), 680-683. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Patel, D. S., Patel, . N. R., Patel, . J. V. & Chavda, . A. B. (2022) A cross-sectional study to evaluate etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and treatment of patients of chronic kidney disease. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 12 (5), 680-683. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.04162202211042022