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Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease

Seema Shridhar Sankeshwari, Khararashah Fakruddin Kammar, Ambuja Sambrani.

Abstract
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disorder which is caused by a composite combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. One of the most contributing quantitative risk factors is family history. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in T2DM ranges from 20% to 30% and the lifetime risk of developing diabetes is up to 40% if either of parents is type 2 diabetic.

Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to know whether non-diabetic offsprings of diabetic parents having chances of becoming diabetic and to have PAD in future part of life.

Material and Methods: Taking all inclusion and exclusion criteria into consideration, 50 offsprings of diagnosed diabetic parents (>5 years) were taken as cases, and 50 healthy age-matched offsprings were taken from non-diabetic parents as controls. A thorough physical and systemic examination were done. After getting informed written consent, anthropometric measurements, FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, were measured. By taking ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP) and brachial SBP, ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) was calculated using a hand held vascular Doppler. Statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test in SPSS software.

Results: The mean HbA1c (%) level for controls was 5.68 ± 0.35 and for cases was 5.85 ± 0.44 with a P-value of 0.035 (significant). Similarly mean values for ankle SBP (mm Hg) were 148.4 ± 17.33 in controls and 159.8 ± 23.66 in cases with a P-value 0.0071 (significant). About 32% of controls and 50% of cases showed a non-compressible ABPI (ncABPI) arteries of >1.3, whereas only 2% of cases showed a typical ABPI of PAD, that is, <0.9.

Conclusion: HbA1c being slightly higher in cases as compared to controls, points toward some ongoing dysregulation of blood glucose levels. With a ncABPI ratio being more in cases than in controls, our study showed that offsprings of diabetic parents are at more risk to develop atherosclerotic related complications such as PAD and CVD in future.

Key words: Type 2 Diabetes; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index; HbA1c; Atherosclerosis; Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sankeshwari SS, Kammar KF, Sambrani A. Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021


Web Style

Sankeshwari SS, Kammar KF, Sambrani A. Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=139345 [Access: May 02, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sankeshwari SS, Kammar KF, Sambrani A. Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sankeshwari SS, Kammar KF, Sambrani A. Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, [cited May 02, 2022]; Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021



Harvard Style

Sankeshwari, S. S., Kammar, . K. F. & Sambrani, . A. (2022) Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021



Turabian Style

Sankeshwari, Seema Shridhar, Khararashah Fakruddin Kammar, and Ambuja Sambrani. 2022. Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021



Chicago Style

Sankeshwari, Seema Shridhar, Khararashah Fakruddin Kammar, and Ambuja Sambrani. "Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sankeshwari, Seema Shridhar, Khararashah Fakruddin Kammar, and Ambuja Sambrani. "Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. Web. 02 May 2022 doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sankeshwari, S. S., Kammar, . K. F. & Sambrani, . A. (2022) Comparative study of ankle brachial pressure index and blood sugar profile among offspring of diabetic and non-diabetic parents in early detection of peripheral arterial disease. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Online First: 25 Nov, 2021. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.11410202113112021