E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria.

Abstract
Background: Coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are preceded by a cluster of metabolic risk factors that include hypertension, dyslipidemia, and prediabetes. The prevalence of these metabolic risk factors shows an upward trend with increasing body mass index and waist circumference.

Aims and Objective: To examine cardiometabolic risk factors among bank employees.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 male bank employees. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile.

Result: Generalized obesity and central obesity were found in 9% and 69% subjects, respectively. Nearly half of the subjects were observed to have hypertension and another one-third prehypertension. Nearly 14% subjects had T2DM. Dyslipidemia was observed in this study as high triglycerides (TGs; 10.8%) and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (10%), high total serum cholesterol (5%), and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (5%). Significant number of subjects had suboptimal lipid levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) was found to be 38%.

Conclusion: Obesity and overweight are prevalent among bank employees. Central obesity and MetS are also prevalent in normal weight subjects. Obese subjects had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and blood glucose and also had higher prevalence of MetS.

Key words: Metabolic Syndrome; Sedentary Job; Obesity; Lipid Profile; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Coronary Heart Disease


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Onkar Singh
Articles by Mrityunjay Gupta
Articles by Vijay Khajuria
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
1. Viswanathan V. Type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in India—magnitude of the problem. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14(12):2805-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
2. World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Disease Statistics, 2008. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/ en/index.html.
3. Harris MI, Klein R, Welborn TA, Kuniman MW. Onset of NIDDM occurs at least 4-7 years before clinical diagnosis. Diabetes Care. 1992;15:815-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
4. Leiter LA, Fitchett DH, Gilbert RE, Gupta M, Mancini GB, McFarlane PA, et al. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group. Can J Cardiol. 2011;27(2):e1-e33. [DOI via Crossref]   
5. Behan KJ, Mbizo J. The relationship between waist circumference and biomarkers for diabetes and CVD in healthy non-obese women. The Pensacola study. Lab Med. 2007;38(7):422-7. [DOI via Crossref]   
6. Meigs JB, Wilson PF, Fox CS, Vasan RS, Nathan DM, Sullivan LM, et al. Body mass index, metabolic syndrome and risk of type-2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(8):2906-12. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
7. Enas EA, Mohan V, Deepa M, Farooq S, Pazhoor S, Chennikkara H. The metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia among Asian Indians: a population with high rates of diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. J Cardiometab Syndr. 2007;2(4):267-75. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
8. Chandola T, Britton A, Brunner E, Hemingway H, Malik M, Kumari M, et al. Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms? Eur Heart J. 2008;29(5):640-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
9. Kumar SG, Sundaram ND. Prevalence of stress level among bank employees in urban Puducherry, India. Ind Psychiatry J. 2014;23:15-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
10. Kumar SG, Unnikrishnan B, Nagaraj K. Self-reported chronic diseases and occupational health risks among bank employees of southern Karnataka city, India. Indian J Community Med. 2013;38:61-2. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
11. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:499-502. [Pubmed]   
12. Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120(16): 1640-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
13. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report. Circulation. 2002;106: 3143-421.
14. Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med. 1998;15(7):539-53. [DOI via Crossref]   
15. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr., et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289(19):2560-71. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
16. National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the Identi- fication, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults—the Evidence Report. Obes Res. 1998;6(Suppl 2): 51S-209S. [Pubmed]   
17. O’Donnella CJ, Elosuab R. Cardiovascular risk factors. Insights from Framingham Heart Study. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2008;61(3): 299-310. [Pubmed]   
18. Singh RB, Pella D. Prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity and undernutrition, a triple burden of diseases during transition in a developing economy. The Five City Study Group. Acta Cardiol. 2007;62:119-27. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
19. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C. Rising burden of obesity in Asia. J Obes. 2010;pii:868573. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
20. Meigs JB, Wilson PF, Fox CS, Vasan RS, Nathan DM, Sullivan LM, et al. Body mass index, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(8):2906-12. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
21. Ibarra J. Obesity and cardiovascular disease. J Lancaster Gen Hosp. 2009;4(4):130-3.
22. Lee K. Obese but normal weight [MONW] and metabolically healthy but obese [MHO] phenotypes in Koreans: characteristics and health behaviors. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(2):280-4. [Pubmed]   
23. St-Onge MP, Janssen I, Heymsfield SB. Metabolic syndrome in normal weight Americans new definition of the metabolically obese, normal-weight individual. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(9):2222- 8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
24. Karelis AD, St-Pierre DH, Conus F, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Poehlman ET. Metabolic and body composition factors in subgroups of obesity: what do we know? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(6): 2569-75. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
25. O’Donnell VB. Free radicals and lipid signaling in endothelial cells. Antiox Redox Signal. 2003;5:195-203. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
26. Wolfrum S, Jensen KS, Liao JK. Endothelium-dependent effects of statins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:729-36. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
27. Schorr U, Blaschke K, Turan S, Distler A, Sharma AM. Relationship between angiotensinogen, leptin and blood pressure levels in young normotensive men. J Hypertens. 1998;16:1475-80. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
28. Kannel WB, Garrison RJ, Dannenberg AL. Secular blood pressure trends in normotensive persons: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J. 1993;125:1154-8. [DOI via Crossref]   
29. Stamler R, Shipley M, Elliott P, Dyer A, Sans S, Stamler J. Higher blood pressure in adults with less education. Some explanations from INTERSALT. Hypertension. 1992;19:237-41. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
30. Fox C, Coady S, Sorlie P, Levy D, Meigs JB, D’Agostino RB Jr. Trends in cardiovascular complications of diabetes. JAMA. 2004;292: 2495-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
31. Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and glucose intolerance as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study. Diabetes Care. 1979;2:120-6. [DOI via Crossref]   
32. Kumar SG, Unnikrishnan B, Nagaraj K. Self-reported chronic diseases and occupational health risks among bank employees of southern Karnataka city, India. Indian J Community Med. 2013;38 (1):61-2. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria. Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2015; 5(3): 258-262. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534


Web Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria. Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=179961 [Access: June 01, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria. Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2015; 5(3): 258-262. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria. Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2015), [cited June 01, 2022]; 5(3): 258-262. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534



Harvard Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria (2015) Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 5 (3), 258-262. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534



Turabian Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria. 2015. Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5 (3), 258-262. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534



Chicago Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria. "Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5 (2015), 258-262. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria. "Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5.3 (2015), 258-262. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Onkar Singh, Mrityunjay Gupta, Vijay Khajuria (2015) Cardiometabolic risk factors in bank employees. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5 (3), 258-262. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.1202201534