E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice

Saeed A Alwaleedi.

Cited by (15)

Abstract
Background: Lead is one of the main environmental contaminants that can threaten living organisms in many ways. Lead toxicity may affect multiple organs of human body and is associated with a number of physiological, biochemical, and morphological alterations.

Aims and Objective: To investigate the risk that may result from exposure to different doses of lead acetate on the body weight and the weight of different organs, hematological indices, and the functions of liver and kidney.

Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on 80 mice. They were divided into four groups. The first group represented the healthy control animals, while groups II, III, and IV were given sublethal doses of lead acetate (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mg/kg body weight, respectively) in drinking water for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood was collected and used for hematological and biochemical analysis.

Result: The results indicated that mice treated with lead acetate showed significant reduction in total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration compared with the healthy control ones while there were significant elevations in total leukocyte count and the amount of platelets. The results also showed significant increase in the activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase, indicating liver dysfunction. In addition, the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were also increased indicating renal deficiency.

Conclusion: Treatment with lead acetate at low doses has harmful effects on experimental animals and induced hematological and biochemical alterations. Therefore, this study advises people to avoid any exposure to this toxic metal to prevent its hazardous effects on health.

Key words: Lead; Toxicity; Blood Indices; Biochemical; Liver; Kidney


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Saeed A Alwaleedi
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
1. Joworaski Z. Stable and Radioactive Lead in Environment and Human Body. Warsaw: Nuclear Energy Information Center, Review Report, 1968, 29. pp. 17–30.
2. Harbison RD. Lead In:(Ed.) Hamilton & Hardy's Industrial Toxicology, 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 1998. pp. 70–6.
3. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MC, Egwurugwu JN. Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int J Phys Sci. 2007;2:112–8.
4. Stowe DM, Goyer RA, Krigman M, Wilson M, Cates M. Experimental oral lead toxicity in young dogs. Arch Pathol. 1973;95:106–16.
5. ATSDR . Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for Lead, Update. Prepared by Clement International Corporation under contact no. 205-88-060 for ATSDR. Atlanta, GA: US Public Health Services, 1993.
6. Elayat W, Bakheelf MS. Effects of chronic lead toxicity on liver and kidney functions. J Med Lab Sci. 2010;1:29–36.
7. Mugahi MN, Heidari Z, Sagheb HM, Barbarestani M. Effects of chronic lead acetate intoxication on blood indices of male adult rat. DARU. 2003;11:147–51.
8. Suradkar SG, Ghodasara DJ, Vihol P, Patel J, Jaiswal V, Prajapati KS. Haemato-biochemical alterations induced by lead acetate toxicity in wistar rats. Vet World. 2009;2:429–31.
9. Ahrens FA. Effects of lead on glucose metabolism, ion flux, and collagen synthesis in cerebral capillaries of calves. Am J Vet Res. 1993;54:808–12.
10. Yokoyama K, Araki S, Akabayashi A, Kato T, Sakai T, Sato H. Alteration of glucose metabolism in the spinal cord of experimental lead poisoning rats: microdetermination of glucose utilization rate and distribution volume. Ind Health. 2000;38:221–3. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
11. Pitot CH, Dragan PY Please confirm the changes made in Reference 11.Chemical carcinogenesis In:(Ed.) Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th edn. , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996. pp. 201–60.
12. Correia PM, Oliveira E, Oliveira PV. Simultaneous determination of Cd and Pb in foodstuffs by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2000;405:205–11. [DOI via Crossref]   
13. Commission of the European Communities. Commission regulation (EC) No. 221/2002 of 6 February 2002 amending regulation (EC) NO. 466/2002 Setting Maximum Levels for Certain Contaminants in Foodstuffs. Brussels: Official Journal of the European Communities, 2002.
14. Demirezen D, Kadiriye U. Comparative study of trace elements in certain fish, meat and meat production. Meat Sci. 2006;74:255–60. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15. Xienia U, Foote GC, Van S, Devreotes PN, Alexander S, Alexander H. Differential developmental expression and cell type specificity of Dictyostelium catalases and their response to oxidative stress and UV light. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1492:295–310. [DOI via Crossref]   
16. Foyer CH, Noctor G. Oxygen processing in photosynthesis: regulation and signaling. New Phytol. 2000;146:359–88. [DOI via Crossref]   
17. Marija V, Piasek M, Blanusa M, Saric M, Juresa D, Kostial K. Succimer treatment and calcium supplementation reduce tissue lead in suckling rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2004;24:123–8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
18. Patrick L. Lead toxicity part II: the role of free radical damage and the use of antioxidants in the pathology and treatment of lead toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 2006;11:114–27.
19. Seddik L, Bah TM, Aoues A, Benderdour M, Slimani M. Dried leaf extract protects against lead-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Eur J Sci Res. 2010;42:139–51.
20. Ali MA, Awal MA, Mostofa M, Islam MA, Ghosh A. Effects of selenium and vitamin B6 with their combination in lead acetate induced toxicities in long Evans rats. Bangl J Vet Med. 2010;8:63–73.
21. Teijon C, Olmo R, Blanco D, Romero A, Teijon JM. Low doses of lead: effects on reproduction and development in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006;111:151–65. [DOI via Crossref]   
22. Aseth J, Jacobsen D, Andersen O, Wickstrom E. Treatment of mercury and lead poisoning with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium dimercapto-propanesulfonate (DMPS). A review. Analyst. 1995;120:853.
23. Szymezak J, Zechalko A, Biernat J. Effect of fodder fat type on blood plasma lipids in rats intoxicated with lead. Bromatol Chem Toksykol. 1983;16:94–8.
24. Hwang DF, Wang LC. Effect of taurine on toxicity of cadmium in rats. Toxicology. 2001;167:173–80. [DOI via Crossref]   
25. Yagminas AP, Franklin CA, Villeneuve DC, Gilman AP, Little PB, Valli VE. Subchronic oral toxicity of triethyl lead in the male weanling rat. Clinical, biochemical, hematological, and histopathological effects. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1990;15:580–96. [DOI via Crossref]   
26. Falke HE, Zwennis WM. Toxicity of lead acetate to female rabbits after chronic subcutaneous administration. 1. Biochemical and clinical effects. Arch Toxicol. 1990;64:522–9.
27. Helmy MA, El-Naga NI, Helal SM. Effect of administration of milk and Kareish cheese on hematological values and histopathological changes of liver and brain in rat treated with lead. Alexandria J Agril Res. 2000;45:103–18.
28. Klaassen CD. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th edn. , New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, 2001. pp. 812–41.
29. Calderon-Salinas V, Hernandez-Luna C, Maldonado M, Saenz D. Mechanisms of the toxic effects of lead. I. Free lead in erythrocytes. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1993;1:153–64.
30. Chmielnicka J, Zareba G, Nasiadek M. Combined effect of tin and lead on heme biosynthesis in rats. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1994;29:165–73. [DOI via Crossref]   
31. Rous P, Jelinek P. [The effect of heavy metals boundary contaminated soil on haematological and selected biochemical parameters in blood plasma of rabbits]. Acta Univ Agric Silvic Mendel Brun. 2000;48:93–9.
32. Sudakova AI, Shevchenko ZT, Nosova LI. [Peripheral blood and bone marrow cell status of white rats with long-term lead exposure]. Tsitol Genet. 1983;17:3–7.
33. Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Das KK. Occupational lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers, silver jewelry workers, and spray painters in western Maharashtra (India): effect on liver and kidney function. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;18:87–100. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
34. Mehta A, Kannan GM, Dube SN, Pant BP, Pant SC, Flora SJ. Hematological, hepatic and renal alterations after repeated oral or intraperitoneal administration of monoisoamyl DMSA. I. Changes in male mice. J Appl Toxicol. 2002;22:359–69. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
35. Abdou ZA, Attia MH, Raafat MA. Protective effect of citric acid and thiol compounds against cadmium and lead toxicity in experimental animals. J Biol Chem Environ Sci. 2007;2:481–97.
36. Shalan MG, Mostafa MS, Hassouna MM, El-Nabi SE, El-Refaie A. Amelioration of lead toxicity on rat liver with vitamin C and silymarin supplements. Toxicology. 2005;206:1–15. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
37. Ibrahim NM, Eweis EA, El-Beltagi HS, Abdel-Mobdy YE. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2:41–6. [DOI via Crossref]   
38. Ghorbe F, Boujelbene M, Makni AF, Guermazi F, Kammoun A, Murat J, et al. Effect of chronic lead exposure on kidney function in male and female rats: determination of lead exposure biomarkers. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2001;109:457–63. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
39. Murrey RK, Granner DK, Rodwell VW. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, 27th edn.New York: McGraw-Hill. 2006.
40. Kaplan MM, Righetti A. Induction of rat liver alkaline phosphatase: the mechanism of serum elevation in bile duct obstruction. J Clin Invest. 1970;49:508–16. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
41. Tatjana J, Gordana K, Dusica P, Ivana S, Tatjana C, Ducan S, et al. Effects of captopril on membrane associated enzymes in lead induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Acta Fac Med Naiss. 2003;20:183–8.
42. Patterson C. Contaminated and natural lead in environments of man. Arch Environ Health. 1965;11:344–60. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
43. Zook BC, Carpenter JL, Roberts RM. Lead poisoning in dogs: occurrence, source, clinical pathology, and electroencephalography. Am J Vet Res. 1972;33:891–902.
44. Swarup D, Dwivedi SK. Changes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid indices in experimental lead toxicity in goats. Ind J Animal Sci. 1992;62:928–31.
45. Haneef SS, Swarup D, Dwivedi SK, Dash PK. Effects of concurrent exposure to lead and cadmium on renal function in goats. Small Rum Res. 1998;28:257–61. [DOI via Crossref]   
46. Ahmed YF, Shalaby SA. Clinicopathological and histopathological studies on chronic lead intoxication in male Barki sheep. Afr J Agric Sci. 1991;18:19–37.

This Article Cited By the following articles

Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic action of ellagic acid against lead acetate induced testicular and hepato-renal oxidative damages and pathophysiological changes in male Long Evans rats
Environmental Pollution 2022; 302(): 119048.

1
 
Protective Effects of Green Tea Supplementation against Lead-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice
Molecules 2022; 27(3): 993.

2
 
Ginkgo biloba Supplement Reverses Lead (II) Acetate–Induced Haematological Imbalances, Hepatic and Renal Dysfunctions in Male Wistar Rat
Biol Trace Elem Res 2022; (): .

3
 
Comparative effects of methanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera and ascorbic acid on haematological and histopathological changes induced by subchronic lead toxicity in male wistar rats
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine 2022; 2(): 100031.

4
 
Co-supplementation of Zinc and Calcium Suppresses Bio-absorption of Lead in Sprague Dawley Rats
Biol Trace Elem Res 2022; (): .

5
 
Antioxidative properties of Ocimum gratissimum alters Lead acetate induced oxidative damage in lymphoid tissues and hematological parameters of adult Wistar rats
Toxicology Reports 2021; 8(): 215.

6
 
Phenolics-rich extracts of Nauclea latifolia fruit ameliorates lead acetate-induced haematology and lung tissues toxicity in male Wistar rats
Scientific African 2021; 11(): e00686.

7
 
Ameliorative effect of ZnO-NPs against bioaggregation and systemic toxicity of lead oxide in some organs of albino rats
Environ Sci Pollut Res 2021; 28(28): 37940.

8
 
Evaluation of Analytes Characterized with Potential Protective Action after Rat Exposure to Lead
Molecules 2021; 26(8): 2163.

9
 
Spirulina platensis ameliorates the sub chronic toxicities of lead in rabbits via anti-oxidative, anti- inflammatory, and immune stimulatory properties
Science of The Total Environment 2020; 701(): 134879.

10
 
Ameliorative effect of curcumin on lead‐induced hematological and hepatorenal toxicity in a rat model
J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020; (): .

11
 
Ameliorative effect of curcumin against lead acetate–induced hemato-biochemical alterations, hepatotoxicity, and testicular oxidative damage in rats
Environ Sci Pollut Res 2020; (): .

12
 
Ameliorative Effect of Vernonia amygdalina Plant Extract on Heavy Metal-Induced Liver and Kidney Dysfunction in Rats
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2020; 2020(): 1.

13
 
Curcumin-loaded cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles: A novel strategy for the treatment of lead-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 2020; 27(6): 1538.

14
 
Evaluation of long-term dermal exposure to soil contaminated with spent engine oil in male Wistar rats: An experimental approach
Toxicol Ind Health 2020; 36(12): 979.

15
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi. Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2016; 6(1): 46-51. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578


Web Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi. Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=204535 [Access: August 03, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi. Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2016; 6(1): 46-51. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi. Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2016), [cited August 03, 2022]; 6(1): 46-51. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578



Harvard Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi (2016) Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 6 (1), 46-51. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578



Turabian Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi. 2016. Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6 (1), 46-51. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578



Chicago Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi. "Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6 (2016), 46-51. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi. "Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6.1 (2016), 46-51. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Saeed A Alwaleedi (2016) Hematobiochemical changes induced by lead intoxication in male and female albino mice. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6 (1), 46-51. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.0910201578