E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri.

Cited by (8)

Abstract
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative syndromes characterized by a progressive decline in the spatial memory. There are convincing evidences on the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids against AD.

Aims and Objective: To determine the effect of quercetin on the acquisition and retention of spatial memory in a rat model of AD.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (six in each): group I: control rats receiving intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of normal saline, group II: rats induced AD by ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg bilaterally; twice, on days 1 and 3), and groups III and IV: ICV-STZ AD rats treated intraperitoneally (IP) with 40 and 80 mg/kg/day quercetin, respectively, over a period of 12 days. Then, the rats were trained with four trials per day for five consecutive days in the Morris water maze (MWM). On the sixth day, the memory retention was evaluated.

Result: The ICV-STZ AD groups showed a significant impairment in the acquisition and retrieval of spatial memory when compared with the control group (P < 0.001). In the AD groups, the escape latency during the training trials showed a significant decrease (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, during the MWM task, these rats spent more time in the target quadrant in probe trials when compared with the controls.

Conclusion: Quercetin acted as a spatial memory enhancer in ICV-STZ–induced AD rats. Hence, this flavonoid can be considered potentially as a promising agent for developing prophylactic and therapeutic neuroprotection. This neuroprotective effect of quercetin may be attributed to its antioxidant and scavenging properties.

Key words: Quercetin; Spatial Memory; Streptozotocin; Alzheimer’s Disease


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Manouchehr Ashrafpour
Articles by Sahar Parsaei
Articles by Hamid Sepehri
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 3599
Downloaded: 1050
Cited: 8

REFERENCES
1. Dekkers W, Rikkert MO. Memory enhancing drugs and Alzheimer's disease: enhancing the self or preventing the loss of it? Med Health Care Philos. 2007;10(2):141–51. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
2. Chen Y, Tian Z, Liang Z, Sun S, Dai CL, Lee MH, et al. Brain gene expression of a sporadic (icv-STZ mouse) and a familial mouse model (3 Tg-AD mouse) of Alzheimer's disease. PloS One. 2012; 7(12):e51432. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
3. Iqbal K, Grundke-Iqbal I. Metabolic/signal transduction hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 2005;109(1):25–31. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
4. Xu Z-P, Li L, Bao J, Wang Z-H, Zeng J, Liu E-J, et al. Magnesium protects cognitive functions and synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer's model. PLoS One. 2014;9(9): e108645. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
5. Kraska A, Santin MD, Dorieux O, Joseph-Mathurin N, Bourrin E, Petit F, et al. In vivo cross-sectional characterization of cerebral alterations induced by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin. PloS One. 2012;7(9):e46196. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
6. Hamaguchi T, Ono K, Murase A, Yamada M. Phenolic compounds prevent Alzheimer's pathology through different effects on the amyloid-b aggregation pathway. Am J Pathol. 2009;175(6): 2557–65. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
7. Erlund I, Freese R, Marniemi J, Hakala P, Alfthan G. Bioavailability of quercetin from berries and the diet. Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1): 13–7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
8. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, RĂ©mĂ©sy C, JimĂ©nez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5): 727–47. [Pubmed]   
9. Ossola B, Kääriäinen TM, Männistö PT. The multiple faces of quercetin in neuroprotection. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2009;8(4): 397–409. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
10. Haleagrahara N, Siew CJ, Mitra NK, Kumari M. Neuroprotective effect of bioflavonoid quercetin in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress biomarkers in the rat striatum. Neurosci Lett. 2011;500(2):139–43. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
11. Wang P, Phan T, Gordon D, Chung S, Henning SM, Vadgama JV. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the antiproliferative effect in prostate cancer cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015;59(2):250–61. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
12. Cimino S, Sortino G, Favilla V, Castelli S, Madonia M, Sansalone S, et al. Polyphenols: key issues involved in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:632959. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
13. Beheshti N, Ganji F, Sepehri H. Effect of vitamin C and quercetin treatment on the liver histopathologic profile in congenital lead exposed male rat pups. Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;19(1):46–52.
14. Weng C-J, Chen MJ, Yeh CT, Yen GC. Hepatoprotection of quercetin against oxidative stress by induction of metallothionein expression through activating MAPK and PI3K pathways and enhancing Nrf2 DNA-binding activity. N Biotechnol. 2011;28(6):767–77. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15. Sun SW, Yu HQ, Zhang H, Zheng YL, Wang JJ, Luo L. Quercetin attenuates spontaneous behavior and spatial memory impairment in D-galactose–treated mice by increasing brain antioxidant capacity. Nutr Res. 2007;27(3):169–75. [DOI via Crossref]   
16. Wang DM, Li SQ, Wu WL, Zhu XY, Wang Y, Yuan HY. Effects of longterm treatment with quercetin on cognition and mitochondrial function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Res. 2014;39(8):1533–43. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
17. Mehla J, Pahuja M, Gupta YK. Streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease: selection of appropriate dose. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;33(1):17–21. [Pubmed]   
18. Sepehri H, Ganji F, Bakhshandeh F. Effect of short time captopril administration on spatial memory in aging rats. Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;19(1):68–75.
19. Bhutada P, Mundhada Y, Bansod K, Tawari S, Patil S, Dixit P, et al. Protection of cholinergic and antioxidant system contributes to the effect of berberine ameliorating memory dysfunction in rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Behav Brain Res. 2011;220(1): 30–41. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
20. Mohammadi HS, Goudarzi I, Lashkarbolouki T, Abrari K, Salmani EM. Chronic administration of quercetin prevent spatial learning and memory deficits provoked by chronic stress in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2014;270:196–205. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
21. Moghadamnia AA, Hakiminia S, Baradaran M, Kazemi S, Ashrafpour M. Vitamin D improves learning and memory impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Arch Iran Med. 2015;18(6): 362–6. [Pubmed]   
22. Taghizadeh M, Talaei SA, Salami M. Vitamin D deficiency impairs spatial learning in adult rats. Iran Biomed J. 2013;17(1):42–8. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
23. Bulzomi P, Galluzzo P, Bolli A, Leone S, Acconcia F, Marino M. The pro-apoptotic effect of quercetin in cancer cell lines requires ERb-dependent signals. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227(5):1891–8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
24. Maso V, Calgarotto AK, Franchi GC Jr, Nowill AE, Filho PL, Vassallo J, et al. Multitarget effects of quercetin in leukemia. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014;7(12):1240–50. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
25. Choi GN, Kim JH, Kwak JH, Jeong CH, Jeong HR, Lee U, et al. Effect of quercetin on learning and memory performance in ICR mice under neurotoxic trimethyltin exposure. Food Chem. 2012;132(2):1019–24. [DOI via Crossref]   
26. Kawada N, Seki S, Inoue M, Kuroki T. Effect of antioxidants, resveratrol, quercetin, and N-acetylcysteine, on the functions of cultured rat hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells. Hepatology. 1998;27(5):1265–74. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
27. Wagner C, Fachinetto R, Dalla Corte CL, Brito VB, Severo D, de Oliveira Costa Dias G, et al. Quercitrin, a glycoside form of quercetin, prevents lipid peroxidation in vitro. Brain Res. 2006;1107(1):192–8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
28. Bandera EV, Williams MG, Sima C, Bayuga S, Pulick K, Wilcox H, et al. Phytoestrogen consumption and endometrial cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in New Jersey. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20(7):1117–27. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
29. Bovet C, Plet B, Ruff M, Eiler S, Granger F, Panagiotidis A, et al. Towards high-throughput identification of endocrine disrupting compounds with mass spectrometry. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23(4): 704–9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   

This Article Cited By the following articles

Neuroprotective effects of Bergenia ciliata on NMDA induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells and attenuation of cognitive deficits in scopolamine induced amnesia in rats
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 2018; 108(): 374.

1
 
Quercetin in Food: Possible Mechanisms of Its Effect on Memory
Journal of Food Science 2018; 83(9): 2280.

2
 
Naringenin-induced enhanced antioxidant defence system meliorates cholinergic neurotransmission and consolidates memory in male rats
Life Sciences 2018; 194(): 213.

3
 
Bergenia ciliata ameliorates streptozotocin-induced spatial memory deficits through dual cholinesterase inhibition and attenuation of oxidative stress in rats
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 2018; 102(): 966.

4
 
Biochemical deficits and cognitive decline in brain aging: Intervention by dietary supplements
Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 2018; (): .

5
 
Naringenin-induced enhanced antioxidant defence system meliorates cholinergic neurotransmission and consolidates memory in male rats
Life Sciences 2017; (): .

6
 
Myricetin protects hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and improves learning and memory impairments in rats with Alzheimer's disease
Neural Regen Res 2016; 11(12): 1976.

7
 
Bioactive effects of quercetin in the central nervous system: Focusing on the mechanisms of actions
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 2016; 84(): 892.

8
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri. Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2015; 5(5): 411-415. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563


Web Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri. Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=199864 [Access: November 14, 2018]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri. Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2015; 5(5): 411-415. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri. Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2015), [cited November 14, 2018]; 5(5): 411-415. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563



Harvard Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri (2015) Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 5 (5), 411-415. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563



Turabian Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri. 2015. Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5 (5), 411-415. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563



Chicago Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri. "Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5 (2015), 411-415. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri. "Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5.5 (2015), 411-415. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri (2015) Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5 (5), 411-415. doi:10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563





Most Viewed Articles
  • Applications of computer science in Pharmacy: An overview
    Shivraj Popat Jadhav, Komal Nikam, Anand Gandhi, Kishor Salunkhe, Narendra Shinde.
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2012; 2(1): 1-9
    » Abstract

  • How to calculate sample size in animal studies?
    Hitesh Shah
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(1): 35-39
    » Abstract

  • Chlorhexidine:The gold standard in chemical plaque control [English]
    Setu mathur, Tanu mathur,Rahul shrivastava, Rohit khatri
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(2): 45-50
    » Abstract

  • Assessment of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending the City Tebessa PMI (Algeria) [English]
    Taleb Salima, Kaibi Mounira, Deghboudj Nadjia
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(2): 97-105
    » Abstract

  • Difference in pulmonary function test among the athletic and sedentary population
    ShobhaRani Vedala, Niranjan Paul, Abhay B Mane
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(2): 118-123
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.109-114

  • Analyzing Pharmaceutical Industry [English]
    Veselin Tima Dickov, Dragan Mitrovic, Boris Milan Kuzman
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(1): 1-8
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2011.1.1-8

  • Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) root bark
    Prabhakar Patil, Sudha Patil, Abhay Mane, Sushilkumar Verma
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(2): 142-146
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.134-138

  • Second MBBS medical student’s feedback on teaching methodology and evaluation methods in Pharmacology
    Nilesh Chavda, Preeti Yadav, Jay Karan, N. D. Kantharia
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(1): 23-31
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2011.1.23-31

  • Prophylaxis and Treatment for Leptospirosis: Where are the Evidences?
    Jaykaran Charan, Deepak Saxena, Summaiya Mulla
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2012; 2(2): 78-83
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2012.2.78-83

  • How to write a thesis? [English]
    Swapnil s Agarwal, Preeti Yadav, Krishnadutt Chavali, Lavlesh Kumar
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(2): 86-90
    » Abstract

  • Most Downloaded
  • How to calculate sample size in animal studies?
    Hitesh Shah
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(1): 35-39
    » Abstract

  • Applications of computer science in Pharmacy: An overview
    Shivraj Popat Jadhav, Komal Nikam, Anand Gandhi, Kishor Salunkhe, Narendra Shinde.
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2012; 2(1): 1-9
    » Abstract

  • Chlorhexidine:The gold standard in chemical plaque control [English]
    Setu mathur, Tanu mathur,Rahul shrivastava, Rohit khatri
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(2): 45-50
    » Abstract

  • Difference in pulmonary function test among the athletic and sedentary population
    ShobhaRani Vedala, Niranjan Paul, Abhay B Mane
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(2): 118-123
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.109-114

  • Prophylaxis and Treatment for Leptospirosis: Where are the Evidences?
    Jaykaran Charan, Deepak Saxena, Summaiya Mulla
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2012; 2(2): 78-83
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2012.2.78-83

  • Analyzing Pharmaceutical Industry [English]
    Veselin Tima Dickov, Dragan Mitrovic, Boris Milan Kuzman
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(1): 1-8
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2011.1.1-8

  • Second MBBS medical student’s feedback on teaching methodology and evaluation methods in Pharmacology
    Nilesh Chavda, Preeti Yadav, Jay Karan, N. D. Kantharia
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(1): 23-31
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2011.1.23-31

  • A study of oxidative stress in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and effect of antioxidant vitamin C in Wistar rats.
    Chetankumar R. Acharya, Hetal N. Thakar, S. K. Vajpeyee
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(1): 14-20
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.14-20

  • Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) root bark
    Prabhakar Patil, Sudha Patil, Abhay Mane, Sushilkumar Verma
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(2): 142-146
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.134-138

  • Assessment of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending the City Tebessa PMI (Algeria) [English]
    Taleb Salima, Kaibi Mounira, Deghboudj Nadjia
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2011; 1(2): 97-105
    » Abstract

  • Most Cited Articles
  • A study of oxidative stress in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and effect of antioxidant vitamin C in Wistar rats.
    Chetankumar R. Acharya, Hetal N. Thakar, S. K. Vajpeyee
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(1): 14-20
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.14-20
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Quercetin improved spatial memory dysfunctions in rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer’s disease
    Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Sahar Parsaei, Hamid Sepehri
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2015; 5(5): 411-415
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2015.5.2308201563
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • A pilot study to evaluate the effect of HAART on gonadal dysfunction in male HIV patients
    Abhishek Pathak, Lalit Prashant Meena, Jaya Chakravarty, Madhukar Rai, Shyam Sundar
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2015; 5(1): 33-35
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2015.5.120720142
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Prevalence and risk factors for eating disorders in Indian adolescent females
    Amit A Upadhyah, Rajesh Misra, Deepak N Parchwani, Pankaj B Maheria
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2014; 4(2): 153-157
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2014.4.041220131
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Newer anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic drugs on the horizon
    Ajai Garg, Anjana Pandey, Pranab Oza, Mridul Chaturvedi
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(2): 105-110
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.090420131
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Rate pressure product predicts cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetics with cardiac autonomic neuropathy
    Rishu Segan, Vidushi Gupta, Lily Walia, Naveen Mittal
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(1): 43-47
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.43-47
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Effects of sixteen weeks exercise training on left ventricular dimensions and function in young athletes
    Sandip M Hulke, Yuganti P Vaidya, Amandeepkour R Ratta
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2012; 2(2): 152-158
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2012.2.152-158
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) root bark
    Prabhakar Patil, Sudha Patil, Abhay Mane, Sushilkumar Verma
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(2): 142-146
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.134-138
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Difference in pulmonary function test among the athletic and sedentary population
    ShobhaRani Vedala, Niranjan Paul, Abhay B Mane
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2013; 3(2): 118-123
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2013.3.109-114
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Time domain measures of heart rate variability during acute mental stress in Type 2 diabetics- A case control study
    Anupama Deepak, Deepak A N, Shobha Nallulwar, Vitthal Khode
    Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2014; 4(1): 34-38
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/njppp.2014.4.080720131
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]