E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study

Anas Ahmad Khan, Syed Esam Mahmood, Mohammad Suhail Khan, Ausaf Ahmad, Saurabh Kashyap, Islam Arfin.

Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world, and in addition to the complexity of CVD management, there are well-documented risk factors whose different effects dictate the need for region-specific research.

Aim and Objectives: This study aimed at investigating the risk factors of CVD among adults in rural Lucknow.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1 to December 31, 2018. Sociodemographic data, anthropometric data, and blood pressure were recorded. Individuals who were at least 18 years of age residing in the study area minimum 2 years and on condition that participants gave their written consent for enrollment in the survey. Data analyses were done using Microsoft Excel.

Results: The study participants comprised of 364 adults, with average age of 35 ± 16 years, 200 (54.9%) were males and 164 (45.1%) were females. The mean values of hip circumference, waist circumference, waist and hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure were higher among females than males. Waist and hip circumference in male participants whereas in female participant’s body mass index with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly correlated.

Conclusion: Rural females were at more risk of higher than-normal blood pressure, compare to males. The significant incidence of CVD risk factors in rural areas, particularly among those who are overweight or obese, necessitates early clinical identification. CVD screening, prevention, and control must be prioritized in health initiatives.

Key words: Cardiovascular Disease; Risk Factors; Rural; Hypertension


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Khan AA, Mahmood SE, Khan MS, Ahmad A, Kashyap S, Arfin I. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2022; 12(12): 2020-2025. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022


Web Style

Khan AA, Mahmood SE, Khan MS, Ahmad A, Kashyap S, Arfin I. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=2115 [Access: February 02, 2023]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Khan AA, Mahmood SE, Khan MS, Ahmad A, Kashyap S, Arfin I. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2022; 12(12): 2020-2025. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Khan AA, Mahmood SE, Khan MS, Ahmad A, Kashyap S, Arfin I. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2022), [cited February 02, 2023]; 12(12): 2020-2025. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022



Harvard Style

Khan, A. A., Mahmood, . S. E., Khan, . M. S., Ahmad, . A., Kashyap, . S. & Arfin, . I. (2022) Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 12 (12), 2020-2025. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022



Turabian Style

Khan, Anas Ahmad, Syed Esam Mahmood, Mohammad Suhail Khan, Ausaf Ahmad, Saurabh Kashyap, and Islam Arfin. 2022. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 12 (12), 2020-2025. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022



Chicago Style

Khan, Anas Ahmad, Syed Esam Mahmood, Mohammad Suhail Khan, Ausaf Ahmad, Saurabh Kashyap, and Islam Arfin. "Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12 (2022), 2020-2025. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Khan, Anas Ahmad, Syed Esam Mahmood, Mohammad Suhail Khan, Ausaf Ahmad, Saurabh Kashyap, and Islam Arfin. "Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12.12 (2022), 2020-2025. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Khan, A. A., Mahmood, . S. E., Khan, . M. S., Ahmad, . A., Kashyap, . S. & Arfin, . I. (2022) Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in rural Lucknow: A community-based study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 12 (12), 2020-2025. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.03139202207042022