E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh.

Cited by (2)

Abstract
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is affected by respiration, circadian factors, environmental factors, yoga, and exercises. There are emerging reports of myocardial infarction in young adults. Reduced HRV is a sign of poor autonomic function. Sedentary life habits in the younger generation have become an important issue in consideration along with the unmodifiable risk factors such as aging and hormonal influences. Several studies have shown that young obese males have reduced HRV. However, there are not many studies, which have explored the changes in HRV indices in young females with higher body mass index (BMI).

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the HRV status of young women with higher BMI and women with normal BMI.

Materials and Methods: A total of 40 apparently healthy females of age between 18 and 25 years were recruited in the study. Sedentary behavior was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. According to BMI (WHO guidelines for Asian population), subjects were divided into test group (BMI >23 kg/m2 and waist/hip [W/H] ratio >0.8, n = 20) and control group (BMI = 18-23 kg/m2, W/H ratio <0.8 n = 20). The subjects were made to lie in supine position for 10 minutes and then 5 min electrocardiogram was acquired in lead II configuration following Task Force Guidelines. After screening for ectopic beats and noise, time domain and frequency domain analysis of the data were done using the Kubios HRV analysis software. Mann Whitney U test was used to test for any significant differences between the groups using the SPSS software version 20.

Results: There was no significant differences in the time domain analysis data between the test group and the control group does not show any significant differences. Under frequency domain analysis, low-frequency normalized units (LF nu) is significantly higher (P = 0.043), high-frequency (HF) nu is significantly lesser (0.043), and LF/HF ratio is significantly higher (P = 0.05) in the test group as compared to the control group. This implies that there is predominance of sympathetic activity in the young overweight and obese females.

Conclusion: Apparently healthy young females, who are overweight and obese, have reduced HRV, which is an alarming signal in today’s scenario, wherein we have reports of cardiovascular morbidities and mortalities at an earlier age. This urges us to think if we have to establish HRV analysis as a prophylactic investigation and also to emphasize on earlier adoption of lifestyle modifications to prevent the progress of impending alterations in the cardiovascular status of these young women.

Key words: Heart Rate Variability; Sedentary Females; Sympathetic Overactivity


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Latha Ramalingam
Articles by Rajalakshmi Ramesh
on Google
on Google Scholar


REFERENCES
1. Buccelletti E, Gilardi E, Scaini E, Galiuto L, Persiani R, Biondi A, et al. Heart rate variability and myocardial infarction: Systematic literature review and metanalysis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2009;13(4):299-307.
2. Schipke JD, Pelzer M, Arnold G. Effect of respiration rate on short-term heart rate variability. Clin Basic Cardiol. 1999;2(1):92.
3. Boudreau P, Yeh WH, Dumont GA, Boivin DB. Circadian variation of heart rate variability across sleep stages. SLEEP. 2013;36(12):1919-28. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.3230
4. Schnell I, Potchter O, Epstein Y, Yaakov Y, Hermesh H, Brenner S, et al. The effects of exposure to environmental factors on Heart Rate Variability: An ecological perspective. Environ Pollut. 2013;183:7-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.02.005 [Pubmed]   
5. Routledge FS, Campbell TS, McFetridge-Durdle JA, Bacon SL. Improvements in heart rate variability with exercise therapy. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26(6):303-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0828-282X(10)70395-0
6. Patil SG, Mullur LM, Khodnapur JP, Dhanakshirur GB, Aithala MR. Effect of yoga on short-term heart rate variability measure as a stress index in subjunior cyclists: A pilot study. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;57(2):153-8.
7. Monda M, Messina G, Vicidomini C, Viggiano A, Mangoni C, De Luca B. Activity of autonomic nervous system is related to body weight in pre-menopausal, but not in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci. 2006;9(3-4):141-5.
8. Colak R, Donder E, Karaoglu A, Ayhan O, Yalniz M. Obesity and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Turk J Med Sci. 2000;30:173-6.
9. Julius S, Valentini M, Palatini P. Overweight and hypertension: A 2-way street? Hypertension 2000;35(3):807-13.
10. Rey-López JP, Vicente-Rodríguez G, Biosca M, Moreno LA. Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(3):242-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2007.07.008 [Pubmed]   
11. Ramalingam L, Ramesh R, Kuppan R. Assessment of cardiac sympathovagal activity in overweight young adult males. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2016;6(2):101-5.
12. Vanderlei LC, Pastre CM, Freitas Júnior IF, Godoy MF. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation in obese and eutrophic children. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65:789-92. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322010000800008
13. Moodithaya SS, Avadhany ST. Comparison of cardiac autonomic activity between pre and post menopausal women using Heart rate variability. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;53(3):227-34.
14. Earnest CP, Lavie CJ, Blair SN, Church TS. Heart rate variability characteristics in sedentary postmenopausal women following six months of exercise training: The DREW study PLoS One. 2008;3:e2288.
15. Available from: http://www.sdp.univ.fvg.it/sites/default/ files/IPAQ_English_self-admin_long.pdf. [Last accessed on Accessed on 2015 Jan 20].
16. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363:157-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15268-3
17. Brar TK, Singh KD, Kumar A. Effect of Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle on Heart Rate Variability (HRV). J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9:CC01-4.
18. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Eur Heart J. 1996;17(3):354–81.
19. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjostrom M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:1381-95. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB [Pubmed]   
20. Chen Y, Copeland WK, Vedanthan R, Grant E, Lee JE, Gu D, et al. Association between body mass index and cardiovascular disease mortality in East Asians and South Asians: Pooled analysis of prospective data from the Asia Cohort Consortium. BMJ. 2013;347:f5446.
21. Gallagher D, Terenzi T, de Meersman R. Heart rate variability in smokers, sedentary and aerobically fit individuals. Clin Auton Res. 1992;2:383-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01831395 [Pubmed]   
22. Chaudary AK, Jiwane R, Alam T, Kishanrao SS. Sedentary behavior in kitchen is liable to fat accumulation and cardio metabolic risk. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2016;9(1):263-7.
23. Mosca L, Edelman D, Mochari H, Christian AH, Paultre F, Pollin I. Waist circumference predicts cardiometabolic and global Framingham risk among women screened during National Woman's Heart Day. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006;15(1):24-34. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2006.15.24 [Pubmed]   
24. Smith MM, Minson CT. Obesity and adipokines: Effects on sympathetic overactivity. J Physiol. 2012;590:1787-801. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2011.221036 [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
25. Quilliot D, Bohme P, Zannad F, Ziegler O. Sympathetic-leptin relationship in obesity: Effect of weight loss. Metabolism. 2008;57(4):555-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2007.11.020 [Pubmed]   
26. da Silva DF, Bianchini JA, Antonini VD, Hermoso DA, Lopera CA, Pagan BG, et al. Parasympathetic cardiac activity is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese adolescents. Pediatr Cardiol. 2014;35(4):684-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-013-0838-6 [Pubmed]   
27. Canale MP, Manca di Villahermosa S, Martino G, Rovella V, Noce A, De Lorenzo A, et al. Obesity-related metabolic syndrome: Mechanisms of sympathetic overactivity. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013:865965. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/865965 [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

This Article Cited By the following articles

Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women
2019; 31(6): .

1
 
Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women
2017; 0(0): .

2
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh. Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2016; 6(5): 407-411. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016


Web Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh. Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=226770 [Access: December 01, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh. Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2016; 6(5): 407-411. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh. Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2016), [cited December 01, 2022]; 6(5): 407-411. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016



Harvard Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh (2016) Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 6 (5), 407-411. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016



Turabian Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh. 2016. Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6 (5), 407-411. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016



Chicago Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh. "Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6 (2016), 407-411. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh. "Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6.5 (2016), 407-411. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Latha Ramalingam, Rajalakshmi Ramesh (2016) Heart rate variability is reduced in sedentary young females with higher body mass index. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6 (5), 407-411. doi:10.5455/njppp.2016.6.0410901052016