E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition

Mohita Singh, Sunil Sachdev, Mrityunjay Gupta, Dev Raj.

Abstract
Background: Spirituality is recognition of a sense that there is something greater than myself. Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances physical fitness and overall health. Music is a universal language to express mind through tone and emotions. Nature is the physical world or the universe. Intelligence is the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally. Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand one’s own emotions and emotions of others. Adversity quotient deals with ability of a person to deal with adversities in life.

Aims and Objectives: The present study was designed to study the effect of different interventions on intelligence, stress and cognitive functions.

Materials and Methods: The present study was performed on 144 subjects in age group of 30–39 years. Their basal level of intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional quotient (EQ), resilience score (RS), acute stress score (ASS), perceived stress score (PSS), isometric handgrip (IHG), and stroop tests was recorded. The subjects were divided into four groups of 36 each. Four groups were allotted different interventions of spirituality practices, moderate intensity physical exercise, receptive music, and engagement with nature respectively for 1 month duration. Statistical analysis: ANOVA and post hoc tests along with student t-test were used for computing the results.

Results: IQ, EQ, RS, ASS, IHG, PSS, and stroop subtests yielded mixed results with four interventions at different levels of significance.

Conclusion: Although every intervention had different and positive impact on parameters, overall spiritual practices exhibited better response on parameters.

Key words: Emotional Intelligence; Music; Nature; Resilience; Spirituality


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Singh M, Sachdev S, Gupta M, Raj D. Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2023; 13(3): 546-551. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022


Web Style

Singh M, Sachdev S, Gupta M, Raj D. Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=91121 [Access: February 03, 2024]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Singh M, Sachdev S, Gupta M, Raj D. Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2023; 13(3): 546-551. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Singh M, Sachdev S, Gupta M, Raj D. Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2023), [cited February 03, 2024]; 13(3): 546-551. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022



Harvard Style

Singh, M., Sachdev, . S., Gupta, . M. & Raj, . D. (2023) Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 13 (3), 546-551. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022



Turabian Style

Singh, Mohita, Sunil Sachdev, Mrityunjay Gupta, and Dev Raj. 2023. Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 13 (3), 546-551. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022



Chicago Style

Singh, Mohita, Sunil Sachdev, Mrityunjay Gupta, and Dev Raj. "Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 13 (2023), 546-551. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Singh, Mohita, Sunil Sachdev, Mrityunjay Gupta, and Dev Raj. "Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 13.3 (2023), 546-551. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Singh, M., Sachdev, . S., Gupta, . M. & Raj, . D. (2023) Effect of spirituality, exercise, music, and engagement with nature on intelligence, stress, and cognition. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 13 (3), 546-551. doi:10.5455/njppp.2023.13.07373202230072022