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Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India

Nidhi Johri, Surabhi Pandey, Priyanka Aswal, Subhra Kumari, Priya Singh Lochab, Prerna Walecha.

Abstract
Background: Bacille calmette–guerin (BCG) vaccine containing live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis was first used in humans to prevent tuberculosis in 1921. It is a safe vaccine. However, there can be minor adverse reactions such as pain, swelling, and redness at local injection site. The lesser known severe adverse reactions such as lymphadenitis, BCG osteitis, and disseminated BCG infection can be present after BCG vaccination.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to report the cases of BCG lymphadenitis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) after BCG vaccination in infants and children.

Materials and Methods: All the infants and children (1 month–2 years) who presented with regional lymphadenopathy for FNAC after BCG vaccination were included in the study.

Results: Total 21 patients with BCG lymphadenitis were recruited. In all the cases, the lymphadenitis involved ipsilateral left axillary lymph nodes. In three patient sites of involvement included the left supraclavicular lymph nodes and in other three patients left cervical lymph nodes along with left axillary lymph node. Sixteen patients had suppurative granulomatous lymphadenitis (SGLA) on FNAC and positive for Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB), while rest nine had non-suppurative granulomatous lymphadenitis (NSGLA) with negative for ZN staining for AFB.

Conclusion: Early diagnosis of BCG lymphadenitis can help in proper management. Furthermore, it can prevent unnecessary anti tubercular treatment in children.

Key words: Bacille Calmette–Guerin Vaccine; Vaccine Induced Lymphadenitis; Tubercular Lymphadenitis; FNAC


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Johri N, Pandey S, Aswal P, Kumari S, Lochab PS, Walecha P. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2022; 12(10): 1664-1668. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022


Web Style

Johri N, Pandey S, Aswal P, Kumari S, Lochab PS, Walecha P. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=96846 [Access: December 03, 2022]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Johri N, Pandey S, Aswal P, Kumari S, Lochab PS, Walecha P. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2022; 12(10): 1664-1668. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Johri N, Pandey S, Aswal P, Kumari S, Lochab PS, Walecha P. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2022), [cited December 03, 2022]; 12(10): 1664-1668. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022



Harvard Style

Johri, N., Pandey, . S., Aswal, . P., Kumari, . S., Lochab, . P. S. & Walecha, . P. (2022) Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 12 (10), 1664-1668. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022



Turabian Style

Johri, Nidhi, Surabhi Pandey, Priyanka Aswal, Subhra Kumari, Priya Singh Lochab, and Prerna Walecha. 2022. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 12 (10), 1664-1668. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022



Chicago Style

Johri, Nidhi, Surabhi Pandey, Priyanka Aswal, Subhra Kumari, Priya Singh Lochab, and Prerna Walecha. "Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12 (2022), 1664-1668. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Johri, Nidhi, Surabhi Pandey, Priyanka Aswal, Subhra Kumari, Priya Singh Lochab, and Prerna Walecha. "Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12.10 (2022), 1664-1668. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Johri, N., Pandey, . S., Aswal, . P., Kumari, . S., Lochab, . P. S. & Walecha, . P. (2022) Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine induced lymphadenitis in infants and children masquerading with tubercular lymphadenitis at tertiary care hospital in North India. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 12 (10), 1664-1668. doi:10.5455/njppp.2022.12.08388202206092022